Referencing is the process of citing or documenting the sources of quotes, theories, ideas, illustrations and diagrams that you have used in writing your university assignments. When we acknowledge sources in this way, we give credit to another person’s words, ideas or opinions in the form of a note and/or bibliographic reference or citation.
There are a number of reasons why you need to reference your work:
- To show that relevant sources have been investigated
- To enable the person reading our work to trace the original sources we have used
- To provide documentary support for an argument
- To give differing points of view of an argument
- To indicate that we have not used someone else's ideas and claimed them as our own
Referencing your work adequately will ensure that you are not accused of plagiarism.
You must acknowledge (reference or cite) any work, or part of any work, that you quote, paraphrase, summarise or copy. You do not have to reference information that is considered general knowledge (e.g. that Wellington is the capital of New Zealand).
Different disciplines and subject areas have preferred formatting conventions for citing works and formatting references. These are referred to as citation styles or referencing styles. Some commonly used styles are APA, MHRA, MLA and Harvard.
Referencing styles fit into three main categories:
- note system
- author/date system
- author /page system
Each style includes the same basic parts of a citation, but organises and formats them slightly differently. The style used depends on the subject you are working in. Visit your subject portal to find out what referencing style you should be using.
Using a consistent format helps the reader to properly identify and locate the works you cited. Being familiar with the conventions of the referencing style used in your course reading lists will also make it easier to search the Library catalogue for these readings, because the formatting will enable you to recognise which part of the citation should be entered for a title search.
The library has a selection of guides for a range of referencing styles.
- ACS Referencing Style Guide
- Animal Behaviour Referencing Style Guide
- APA Referencing Style Guide
- Harvard Geography Referencing Style Guide
- Harvard Science Referencing Style Guide
- MHRA Referencing Style Guide
- MLA Referencing Style Guide
- NZ Law Referencing Style Guide
- RSNZ Referencing Style Guide
Some referencing styles will also have an official online guide. Try searching in google.
Yes. Go to Referencing Styles and select the style you want an example sheet for to see if one is available.
The APA referencing style is one of the more complex styles around. If you are really struggling, you may like to have a look at the APA Referencing in the VeRD via Moodle. This comprises topics and explanations formed from real student queries.
There is a Library guide called Reference using APA which goes over the fundamentals of APA referencing style, and provides examples in a number of formats.
There are also tutorials available specifically for APA Referencing. See About Tutorials for information.
There are a number of free tools available to help format your references, but you have to remember that some will do a better job than others. It's up to you to double check that your references are formatted correctly before handing in your assignment. Here are some examples: