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Books

In text citation

(King, 2000) or
King (2000) compares Frame with "..." (p. 34).

In reference list

King, M. (2000). Wrestling with the angel: A life of Janet Frame. Auckland, New Zealand: Viking.

Keypoints to Format References section for detailed formatting information.

In text citation

(Treviño & Nelson, 2007) or
Treviño and Nelson (2007) illustrated ...

When citing in-text, if the author's names are in parentheses, use the & symbol. Otherwise, in-text use and before the last author of a citation (Publication Manual, p. 175).

In reference list

Treviño, L. K., & Nelson, K. A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

In text citation

First in text citation
(Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne, 2006) or
Krause, Bochner, and Duchesne (2006) recommend "..." (p. 32).

In subsequent citations:
According to Krause et al. (2006)

Cite all authors the first time, and in subsequent citations include only the first author followed by et al. (short for et alii - Latin for 'and others'). Do not italicise et al.

In reference list

Krause, K.-L., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S. (2006). Educational psychology for learning and teaching (2nd ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Thomson.

In text citation

According to Mezey et al. (2002) ... or
It is ... (Mezey et al., 2002)

If there are six or seven authors, cite only the first author followed by et al. (short for et alii - Latin for 'and others'). Do not italicise et al. (Publication manual p. 175).

In reference list

Mezey, M. D., Cassel, C. K., Bottrell, M. M., Hyer, K., Howe, J. L., & Fulmer, T. T. (Eds.). (2002). Ethical patient care: A casebook for geriatric health care teams. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

In text citation

In the research of Nel et al. (2012), it is ... or
It is ... (Nel et al., 2002)

In reference list

Nel, P., du Plessis, A., Fazey, M., Erwee, R., Pillay, S., Mackinnon, B. H., . . . Millet, B. (2012). Human resource management in Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.

List the first six, then an ellipsis (…) and finish with the last author.

In text citation

In the book, Joint Investigations of Child Abuse (1993), it is...

  • Note that the key words of the book title are capitalised when used in text, but not in the reference list.
  • Italicise the book title in text (Publication Manual, p. 104 & 176).
  • Do not use 'Anonymous' unless the author's name is given as Anonymous.

In reference list

Joint investigations of child abuse. (1993). Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

  • If no author is stated, the title takes the author position.
  • If the author's name is given as Anonymous, use Anonymous in the author field (Publication Manual, p. 177).

In text citation

First in text citation
(American Psychological Association [APA], 2010) or
The American Psychological Association (APA, 2010) indicated...

In subsequent citations:
According to APA (2010)...

  • Some group authors may be abbreviated in subsequent citations if they are readily recognisable (Publication Manual, pp. 176-177).
  • Note use of square brackets around abbreviation in first example above.

In reference list

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author.

  • When the author and the publisher are the same, use Author in the publisher field. List in the references list by the first significant word of the organisation. For group authors, the parent body precedes a subdivision (Publication Manual, p.183).

In text citation

Carter and Beadle's (1930, as cited in Crisman & Streever, 1996) research shows that... or
It is researched as ... (Carter & Beadle, 1930, as cited in Crisman & Streever, 1996)...

In reference list

Crisman, T. L., & Streever, W. J. (1996). The legacy and future of tropical limnology. In F. Schiemer & K. T. Boland (Eds.), Perspectives in tropical limnology (pp. 27-42). Amsterdam, Netherlands: SPB Academic.

In text citation

(Baldwin, 1909/1980) or
Baldwin (1909/1980) criticised...

  • Both the original publication year and the year of the republished book are included.

In reference list

Baldwin, J. M. (1980). Darwin and the humanities (Library of Genetic Science and Philosophy Series: Vol. 2). New York, NY: AMS. (Original work published 1909)

  • Information about the original publication is included in parentheses after the publisher's name or retrieval statement (See Also Publication Manual, pp. 203-204, example 21 and 26).

In text citation

(Sartre, 1962) or
Sartre (1962) is an example of ...

In reference list

Sartre, J.-P. (1962). Imagination: A psychological critique (F. Williams, Trans.). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

In text citation

(Neilson, 2005) or
Neilson (2005) concludes by ...

In reference list

Neilson, W. (2005). Physical activity, participation and disability. In D. Fraser, R. Moltzen, & K. Ryba (Eds.), Learners with special needs in Aotearoa New Zealand (3rd ed., pp. 411-422). Palmerston North, New Zealand: Dunmore Press.

  • The author and chapter title come first, followed by the editor(s) and book title.
  • Note the editor's initials come before the family name.
  • It is the book title that is italicised, not the chapter title. The page numbers of the chapter are also required.

In text citation

(Samovar & Porter, 1997) or
Samovar and Porter (1997) conclude by ...

In reference list

Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. (Eds.). (1997). Intercultural communication: A reader (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

  • Include (Ed.) or (Eds.) after their name(s).
  • If you are citing a chapter within an edited book, review the previous section, "Chapter in an edited book".

In text citation

"What's past is prologue" (Shakespeare, 1604/1999, p.121).

  • If the published date of an original work is known, use the original publication date as publication date, plus the publication date of the edited version.

In reference list

Shakespeare, W. (1999). The tempest (P. Holland, Ed.). New York, NY: Penguin. (Original work published 1604)

  • Use parentheses to acknowledge the editor’s name.
  • Put information about the original publication after the publication information in parentheses.
  • Note there is no full stop after the parenthesis.

In text citation

Lance (2011) argues that...

In reference list

Lance, L. (2011). Nonproduction benefits of education: Crime, health, and good citizenship. In Handbook of the economics of education (Vol. 4, pp.183-282). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53444-6.00002-X

In text citation

(Martin, 2011)

In reference list

Martin, J. L. (2011). The explanation of social action. Retrieved from ebookcentral.proquest.com

In text citation

(Hwang, 2002) or
Hwang (2002) identifies the hurdles North Korea ...

In reference list

Hwang, E.-G. (2002). North Korea: Economic system. In D. Levinson & K. Christenson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of modern Asia (Vol. 4, pp. 350-353). New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.

  • If there is a volume number or edition (not 1st edition), include this in parentheses after the title along with page number(s).

In text citation

It is defined as ... ("Social Constructionism," 2009).

  • Note that the entry is capitalised when used in text, but not in the reference list (Publication Manual, pp. 101 & 176).

In reference list

Social constructionism. (2009). In J. Scott & G. Marshall (Eds.), A dictionary of sociology (3rd rev. ed.). Retrieved from www.oxfordreference.com

  • For online dictionaries and encyclopedia, a retrieval statement takes the place of publisher location and name. Note the editors' initials precede the family name.
  • Give the name of the database, as in the example above (do not include the database URL).