Breadcrumbs

Journals

In text citation

(Sainaghi, 2008) or
Sainaghi (2008) suggests...

In reference list

Sainaghi, R. (2008). Strategic position and performance of winter destinations. Tourism Review, 63(4), 40-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/16605370810912209

  • DOI is a Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
  • In 2012, APA published a supplement to the official APA Style Manual, where they announced a change to the way the doi was to be presented, from doi:10.XXXXXX (as is recommended by CrossRef in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual) to http://dx.doi.org/10.XXXXXXX. This is to ensure that DOIs are resolved into working links. Both are acceptable during this transition period.
  • When a DOI is available, include it in the reference (Publication Manual, p. 189).

In text citation

(Shepherd et al., 2007) or
Shepherd et al. (2007) highlight the...

  • If there are six or seven authors, for the first in text citation, cite only the first author followed by et al.

In reference list

Shepherd, R., Barnett, J., Cooper, H., Coyle, A., Moran-Ellis, J., Senior, V., & Walton, C. (2007). Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning. Social Science & Medicine, 65(2), 377-392.

  • A capital letter is used for key words in the journal title. The journal title and volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in parentheses (not italicised).
  • If each issue begins with page 1, give the issue number in the parentheses immediately after the volume number.
  • The issue number is not required for journals with continuous pagination. See example for Journal Article with continuous pagination.

In text citation

(Snell & Hodgetts, n.d.) or
Snell and Hodgetts (n.d.) identified "..." (para. 3)

  • (n.d.)= no date.
  • As there are no page numbers, cite the paragraph number in text.

In reference list

Snell, D., & Hodgetts, D. (n.d.). The psychology of heavy metal communities and white supremacy. Te Kura Kete Aronui, 1. Retrieved from http://www.waikato.ac.nz/wfass/tkka

  • (n.d.)= no date.

In text citation

(Ferguson, 2014) or
Ferguson (2014) delves...

In reference list

Ferguson, C. J. (2014). A way forward for video game violence research. American Psychologist, 69, 307-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036357

  • Although this example above has an issue number, all APA journals use continuous pagination and therefore the issue number is not required in the reference. i.e. each issue continues the page numbering of the previous issue.
  • In 2012, APA published a supplement to the official APA Style Manual, where they announced a change to the way the doi was to be presented, from doi:10.XXXXXX (as is recommended by CrossRef in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual) to http://dx.doi.org/10.XXXXXXX. This is to ensure that DOIs are resolved into working links. Both are acceptable during this transition period.

In text citation

(Lilieholm & Romney, 2000, as cited in Suntikul, Butler, & Airey, 2010) or
Lilieholm and Romney (2000, as cited in Suntikul, Butler, & Airey, 2010) argue that...

In reference list

Suntikul, W., Butler, R., & Airey, D. (2010). Implications of political change on national park operations: Doi moi and tourism to Vietnam's national parks. Journal of Ecotourism, 9(3), 201-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14724040903144360

  • See also "Citations in text" section in "Citations in text & references list".
  • In 2012, APA published a supplement to the official APA Style Manual, where they announced a change to the way the doi was to be presented, from doi:10.XXXXXX (as is recommended by CrossRef in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual) to http://dx.doi.org/10.XXXXXXX. This is to ensure that DOIs are resolved into working links. Both are acceptable during this transition period.