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Others (Course Handouts, Software, Email etc.)

In text citation

(Sygic, 2013)

In reference list

Sygic. (2013). Sygic GPS navigation: All regions (Version 13.1.4) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/sygic-gps-navigation-all-regions/id585193266?mt=8


In text citation

(Brown, 2004)

In reference list

Brown, P. (2004). Marketing: MKTG200-11B [Lecture notes]. Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato, Department of Marketing.

  • Course handouts and lecture notes belong to the group "unpublished papers, lectures from an archive or personal collections" (Publication Manual, p. 213).
  • Put the format in square brackets after the title. e.g. [Lecture notes].

In text citation

(Archard, Merry, & Nicholson, 2011) or
Archard, Merry, and Nicholson (2011) state that

In reference list

Archard, S., Merry, R., & Nicholson, C. (2011). Karakia and waiata [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from TEPS757-11B (NET): Communities of Learners website: http://elearn.waikato.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?id=174650

  • Put the format in square brackets after the title. e.g. [Powerpoint slides].
  • This referencing format should be used only for your assignments.

In text citation

(Thomson Reuters, n.d.)

  • (n.d.)= no date.

In reference list

Thomson Reuters.  (n.d.). Publically listed telecommunications companies in India with 500 or more employees [Data file].  Retrieved from Thomson One Banker database.

  • A data set is where you have selected raw data to produce a unique data set (Publication Manual, p. 210).  It usually involves specialised software with limited access, rather than commonly available software (e.g. MS Excel) or is found on a website.
  • The use of [Data file] indicates that you have chosen specific data to form this data set.  You can also include additional information to distinguish data sets, e.g. [Data file, 2001 Population Census].
  • If the database has a specific title, include this detail (e.g. from Thomson One Banker).
  • Use (n.d.) if the year of publication is not given.
  • If a title is given for the data set, put it in italics. If you have created your own title, do not italicise.

In text citation

(Statistics New Zealand, n.d.).

In reference list

Statistics New Zealand.  (n.d.). Birthplace and sex, for the Maori ethnic group census usually resident population count, 2001 [Data file, 2001 Population Census].  Retrieved from Table Builder: http://www.stats.govt.nz/

  • A data set is where you have selected raw data to produce a unique data set (Publication Manual, p. 210).  It usually involves specialised software with limited access, rather than commonly available software (e.g. MS Excel) or is found on a website.
  • The use of [Data file] indicates that you have chosen specific data to form this data set.  You can also include additional information to distinguish data sets, e.g. [Data file, 2001 Population Census].
  • If the website has a specific title, include this detail (e.g. from Table Builder).
  • Use (n.d.) if the year of publication is not given.
  • If a title is given for the data set, put it in italics. If you have created your own title, do not italicise.

In text citation

(H. Clarke, personal communication, March 19, 2004) or H. Clarke (personal communication, March 19, 2004) remarked that...

In reference list

  • No information is required in the reference list as the data has not been published and can not be retrieved.
  • Contents from private or friend-only social networking webpages should be treated as Personal Communications, but information in a publicly available social networking website may be referenced, for example, with [Facebook update]. See examples in 'Webpages & Social Networking' section.