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MHRA Style: Common Examples

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Archives, Manuscripts & Ephemera

Required Information

Author First Name and Last Name, Collection/manuscript name, City, Name of Institution where manuscript is housed, catalogue number for that collection.

Note: add <URL> [accessed date] after document number if applicable
Note: add in name of database <URL> [accessed date] after document number if applicable

First footnote

A.R.Stone, 'Diary', 4 August, 1919, Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library, MS-Papers-11199-58.

Subsequent footnote

Stone, 4 August 1919.

Bibliography

Stone, A.R. 'Diary' (1919), Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library, MS-Papers-11199-58

Audiovisual - Film & Music

Required Information

Title of Film, dir. First and Last Name of Director/s, Performers (if appropriate), (Distributor, Date) [on format]

First footnote

Amistad, dir. by Steven Spielberg (Dreamworks Pictures, 2001) [on DVD]

Subsequent footnote

Amistad

Note: if possible, it is helpful give the time of the section referenced, e.g. Amistad at 1.02.15.

Bibliography

Amistad, dir. by Steven Spielberg (Dreamworks Pictures, 2001), [on DVD]

Required Information

Title of Film, Dir. First and Last Name of Director/s, Performers (if appropriate), (Distributor, Date) in name of database <URL> [accessed date]

First footnote

1905: Year of Light: Einstein's Important Discovery, dir. by Philippe Tournancheau (Filmakers Library, 2006) in Kanopy <https://waikato.kanopystreaming.com/video/1905-act> [accessed 10 May 2016]

Subsequent footnote

1905: Year of Light: Einstein's Important Discovery

Bibliography

1905: Year of Light: Einstein's Important Discovery, dir. by Philippe Tournancheau (Filmakers Library, 2006) in Kanopy <https://waikato.kanopystreaming.com/video/1905-act> [accessed 10 May 2016]

Required Information

Composer First Name and Last Name, Title, type of score (if used), Edition (City, Publisher, date).

First footnote

Richard Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, study score, Edition Eulenburg no. 905 (London: Eulenburg, n.d.), Prelude.

Note: Include movement as appropriate.

Subsequent footnote

Wagner, Transfiguration.

Bibliography

Wagner, Richard, Tristan und Isolde, study score, Edition Eulenburg no. 905 (London: Eulenburg, n.d.)

Required Information

Author First and Last name, Title of Musical Composition, Performer / artist / group (if appropriate), conductor (Place of publication (if available): Publisher/ Production/Recording Company, Date) [on format]

Note: in name of database <URL> [accessed date] if applicable
Note: <URL> [accessed date] if applicable

First footnote

Ludwig van Beethoven, Piano Concerto no. 5, Mitsuko Uchida, Symphonieorchester des Beyerischen Rundfunks, cond. by Kurt Sanderling (Phillips, 462 586-2, 1998) [on CD]

Subsequent footnote

Beethoven.

Note: Include movement if applicable

Bibliography

Beethoven, Ludwig van, Piano Concerto no. 5, Mitsuko Uchida, Symphonieorchester des Beyerischen Rundfunks, cond. by Kurt Sanderling (Phillips, 462 586-2, 1998) [on CD]

Blogs

Required Information

Author First Name and Last Name, 'Title of blog', <web address> [Accessed Day Month Year] Author First Name and Last Name, Title of blog [online blog] <URL> [Accessed Day Month Year]

First footnote

Vincent O'Malley, What a Nation Chooses to Remember and Forget: The War for New Zealand's History [online blog] <http://themeetingplacenz.blogspot.co.nz/2016/11/what-nation-chooses-to-remember-and.html> [Accessed 2 February 2017].

Subsequent footnote

O'Malley.

Bibliography

O'Malley, Vincent, What a Nation Chooses to Remember and Forget: The War for New Zealand's History [online blog] <http://themeetingplacenz.blogspot.co.nz/2016/11/what-nation-chooses-to-remember-and.html> [Accessed 2 February 2017]

Books

Required Information

Author's first name and last name, Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published), page number/s.

First footnote

Tracey Slaughter, Deleted Scenes for Lovers (Wellington: Victoria University Press, 2016), p. 66

Subsequent footnote

Slaughter, p.12.

Bibliography

Slaughter, Tracey, Deleted Scenes for Lovers (Wellington: Victoria University Press, 2016)

Required Information

Author's first name and last name, (repeat up to three authors), Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published), page number/s.

First footnote

Jane Stafford and Mark Williams, Maoriland: New Zealand Literature 1872-1914 (Wellington: Victoria University Press, 2006), p. 41.

Subsequent footnote

Stafford and Williams, p. 38.

Bibliography

Stafford, Jane and Mark Williams, Maoriland: New Zealand Literature 1872-1914 (Wellington: Victoria University Press, 2006)

Required Information

First listed author's first name and last name, and others, Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published), page numbers/s.

First footnote

George Huppert and others, After the Black Death: A History of Early Modern Europe, 2nd edn. (London: Routledge, 1993), p.10.

Subsequent footnote

Huppert and others, p. 38.

Bibliography

Huppert, George and others, After the Black Death: A History of Early Modern Europe, 2nd edn. (London: Routledge, 1993)

If the book has no editor stated, see example for book.

Required Information

Author's first name and last name, 'Title of chapter', in Title: Subtitle, ed. by Editors first name and last name (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published), page range of chapter, (page number cited).

First footnote

Raymond Richards, 'Good Government: The United States Shapes a New Zealand Politician', in Examining State and Evil: Authoritarian Slips, Past and Present, ed. by C. S. Cercel & C. Ozpinar (Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Press, 2013), pp. 53-61 (p. 57).

Subsequent footnote

Richards, p. 60.

Bibliography

Richards, Raymond, 'Good Government: The United States Shapes a New Zealand Politician', in Examining State and Evil: Authoritarian Slips, Past and Present, ed. by C. S. Cercel & C. Ozpinar (Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Press, 2013), pp. 53-61

Required Information

Title: Subtitle, ed. by Editor's first name and last name, edition, revised by, number of volumes (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published), volume used, page range, page number/s referred to.

First footnote

The Works of Thomas Nashe, ed. by Ronald B. McKerrow, 2nd edn, rev. by F. P. Wilson, 5 vols (Oxford: Blackwell, 1958), III, 94–98 (pp. 95–96).

Subsequent footnote

Nashe, p. 96.

Note: If you refer to the editor's words or ideas, use editor name in place of author.

Bibliography

McKerrow, Ronald B., ed., The Works of Thomas Nashe, 2nd edn, rev. by F. P. Wilson, 5 vols (Oxford: Blackwell, 1958)

Required Information

'Title of entry', Title: Subtitle, ed. by Editor's first name and last name (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published), page number/s.

First footnote

'Feminism', History in Dispute Volume 2: American Social and Political Movements, 1945 - 2000: Pursuit of Liberty, ed. by Robert J. Allison, (Detroit : St. James Press, 2000), pp. 77 - 80.

Note: Although entries may have individual authors, as a general rule, refer to entries by title.
Note: Use 'and others' for more than 3 editors - see entry for Book - four or more authors

Subsequent footnote

'Feminism', p. 79.

Bibliography

Allison, Robert J., ed. History in Dispute Volume 2 : American Social and Political Movements, 1945 - 2000: Pursuit of Liberty (Detroit: St. James Press, 2000)

Classical Works

Required Information

Titles of books from the Bible are not italicised, Book numbers are given in Roman numerals, chapter and verse numbers in Arabic numerals separated by a period.

First footnote

II Corinthians 5. 13-15.

Subsequent footnote

Isaiah 22. 17.

Bibliography

If a specific edition of the Bible is used, include the details in the bibliography as you would for a book with an anonymous author.

The Holy Bible, New Revised Standard Version: Containing the Old and New Testaments (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994)

Conference Papers

Required Information

Author's First and Last Name, 'Title of conference paper', in Title of conference (Place of Publication: Publishers, Date), pp. page range of paper (page number/s of citation).

Note: <URL> [Accessed date] if applicable

First footnote

Mark Houlahan, 'Shakespeare and New Zealand: 1912-1916-1964' (unpublished conference paper, Shakespeare and the Public: A Symposium, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 18 Feb 2016), pp. 1 - 33.

Subsequent footnote

Houlahan, p. 32.

Bibliography

Houlahan, Mark, 'Shakespeare and New Zealand: 1912-1916-1964', (unpublished conference paper, Shakespeare and the Public: A Symposium, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 18 Feb 2016)

Dictionaries and Encyclopaedias

Required Information

Author's first name and last name, Title of Book: Subtitle, edition (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published) <URL>, [accessed date]

Note: For a print dictionary omit <URL> and [accessed date]

Note: If no author/editor stated, use Title in place of author field (see second example)

First footnote

Chris Baldick, The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, 4th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), Oxford Reference Online <http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy.waikato.ac.nz/> [accessed 10 December 2016] s.v. abjection.

s.v. = sub verbo (under the word)

Subsequent footnote

Baldick, s.v. metaphor.

Bibliography

Baldick, C., The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, 4th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), Oxford Reference Online <http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy.waikato.ac.nz/> [accessed 10 December 2016]

First footnote

Oxford English Dictionary Online, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), <http://www.oed.com.ezproxy.waikato.ac.nz/view/> [accessed 14 August 2017] s.v. sanction, n.

Note: Even though some OED online entries will not have been updated since an earlier edition, it is acceptable to use the copyright date stated at the bottom of the page.

Subsequent citation

OED, s.v. metal, n.

Reference list

Same as for the first citation but omit s.v. sanction, n.

Required Information

Author first and last name (if given), 'Title of entry', Title: Subtitle, ed. by Editor's first name and last name (if given) (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published) (if given), <URL> [accessed date]

First footnote

Robert Consedine, 'Anti-racism and Treaty of Waitangi Activism - Organising Against Racism, 1970s to early 2000s', Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 23 March 2015 <http://www.TeAragovt.nz/en/speed/26677/anti-tour-march-1981> [accessed 10 August 2016].

Subsequent footnote

Consedine.

Bibliography

Consedine, Robert, 'Anti-racism and Treaty of Waitangi Activism - Organising Against Racism, 1970s to early 2000s', Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 23 March 2015 <http://www.TeAragovt.nz/en/speed/26677/anti-tour-march-1981> [accessed 10 August 2016]

Electronic books (Ebooks)

Note: Reference online books as a print version of a book but include the additional information after the (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published).

Required Information

Author's first name and last name, Title of Book: Subtitle, (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published) page number, ebook provider <URL> [accessed date]

First footnote

Linda Hutcheon and Siobhan O'Flynn, A Theory of Adaptation, (London: Taylor & Francis, 2012), pp. 168, Taylor & Francis eBooks <http://www.tandfebooks.com.ezproxy.waikato.ac.nz/isbn/9780203095010> [accessed 22 January 2017]

Subsequent footnote

Hutcheon and O'Flynn, p. 98.

Bibliography

Hutcheon, Linda and Siobhan O'Flynn, A Theory of Adaptation (London: Taylor & Francis, 2012) Taylor & Francis eBooks <http://www.tandfebooks.com.ezproxy.waikato.ac.nz/isbn/9780203095010> [accessed 22 January 2017]

Required Information

Author's first name and last name, Title: Subtitle, name of Ebook reader (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published), page number/s.

First footnote

C.S Lewis, The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature, Kindle Edition (Pymble, NSW: Harper Collins, 2013), p. 49.

Note: Use the form of the name that is on the title page
Note: If the reader uses a location number rather than page number, use location in place of p.
Note: If the city is little known, use state or country as well.

Subsequent footnote

Lewis, p. 98.

Bibliography

C.S Lewis, The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature, Kindle Edition (Pymble, NSW: Harper Collins, 2013)

Figures, Images and Art Works

Required Information

Creator First Name and Last Name, Title of Image, medium, from collection or book (City: Publisher, date).

Note: online <URL>, [accessed day month year] Further examples in MHRA Guide, p. 76, section 11.2.18 http://www.mhra.org.uk/pdf/MHRA-Style-Guide-3rd-Edn.pdf

First footnote

Royal Hotel Raglan, ed. by University of Waikato Library Historical Photographs Collection, 1900 [ca]), http://digital.liby.waikato.ac.nz/nzc/photos/history/261.html>, [accessed 2 February 2017]

Note: If author is unknown use title in author position

Subsequent footnote

Royal Hotel Raglan

Bibliography

Royal Hotel Raglan, ed. by University of Waikato Library Historical Photographs Collection, 1900 [ca]), http://digital.liby.waikato.ac.nz/nzc/photos/history/261.html>, [accessed 2 February 2017]

Required Information

Author's First and Last name, Title, date, medium, dimensions, Institution or collection that houses the work, City. <URL> [date accessed]

Note: add <URL> [date accessed] if applicable

First footnote

Ted Bracey, Winter Land Signals [acrylic on canvas] University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand (1970).

Subsequent footnote

Bracey.

Bibliography

Bracey, Ted, Winter Land Signals [acrylic on canvas] University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand (1970)

Journals (Academic/Scholarly)

Specific Rules for Journal Articles:

  • Year of publication should be contained in parentheses.
  • Page range of the article should not be preceded by 'pp'.
  • Page number of actual citation should be in parentheses and preceded with 'p' or 'pp'.
  • References for articles in an online journal must include the URL or the DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
Required Information

Author's first name and last name, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, series number (if available), volume number.issue number (year of publication), page range, page number referenced.

First footnote

Nepia Mahuika, 'Re-storying Maori Legal Histories: Indigenous Articulations in Nineteenth-Century Aotearoa New Zealand', Journal of the Native American and Indigenous Studies Association, 2.1 (2015), 40-66, (p.43).

Subsequent footnote

Mahuika, p. 60.

Bibliography

Mahuika, Nepia, 'Re-storying Maori Legal Histories: Indigenous Articulations in Nineteenth-Century Aotearoa New Zealand', Journal of the Native American and Indigenous Studies Association, 2.1 (2015), 40-66

Required Information

Author's first name and last name, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, series number (if available), volume number.issue number (year of publication), page range, page number referenced, <URL>, [accessed date]

First footnote

Mark Houlahan, 'Shakespearean Verse Speaking: Text and Theatre Practice, and: Shakespeare in Stages: New Theatre Histories (review)', Shakespeare Quarterly, 63 (2012), 438–40, <https://muse.jhu.edu/article/490359> [accessed 27 July 2016].

Subsequent footnote

Houlahan, p. 439.

Bibliography

Houlahan, Mark, 'Shakespearean Verse Speaking: Text and Theatre Practice, and: Shakespeare in Stages: New Theatre Histories (review)', Shakespeare Quarterly, 63 (2012), 438–40, <https://muse.jhu.edu/article/490359> [accessed 27 July 2016]

A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique string of letters and numbers which represents a digital resource. While the DOI is a permanent link to information about the item, full text access will often be via the library.

Required Information

Author's first name and last name, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, series number (if available), volume number.issue number (if necessary) (year of publication), page range, page number referenced, <DOI>.

First footnote

Kirstine Moffat, 'The Poetry and Fiction of Scottish Settlers in New Zealand', Immigrants & Minorities, 30.1 (2012) <doi:10.1080/02619288.2011.651331>

Subsequent footnote

Moffat, p. 60.

Bibliography

Moffat, Kirstine, 'The Poetry and Fiction of Scottish Settlers in New Zealand', Immigrants & Minorities, 30.1 (2012) <doi:10.1080/02619288.2011.651331>

Required Information

Author's first name and last name, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, series number (if available), volume number.issue number (year of publication), page range (if paginated), page number referenced, <URL> [date accessed] (location of passage if not paginated, e.g. para. 4).

First footnote

Steve Sohmer, 'The Lunar Calendar of Shakespeare's King Lear', Early Modern Literary Studies, 5.2 (1999), <http://muse.jhu.edu> [accessed 30 November 2005] (para.3 of 17).

Subsequent footnote

Sohmer, para.5

Bibliography

Sohmer, Steve, 'The Lunar Calendar of Shakespeare's King Lear', Early Modern Literary Studies, 5.2 (1999), <http://muse.jhu.edu> [accessed 30 November 2005]

Newspaper Articles

Required Information

Author first name and last name, 'Title of Article', Title of Publication, Date of issue, Section of publication (where relevant), page number/s.

Note: 'The' and 'A' is normally omitted from publication titles when citing English language newspapers, with the exception of The Times.

Note: If article has no author, use article title in place of author name.

First footnote

Kirstine Moffat, 'Excerpts from Piano Forte, Kirstine Moffat, University of Otago Press [Derived Headline]', Waikato Times, 19 May 2012, p. 8.

Note: Use [Derived Headline] if item does not have a title.

Subsequent footnote

Moffat.

Bibliography

Moffat, Kirstine, 'Excerpts from Piano Forte, Kirstine Moffat, University of Otago Press [Derived Headline]', Waikato Times, 19 May 2012

Required Information

Author first and last name, 'Title of the article', Title of publication, Date of issue <URL to article> [accessed date]

Note: insert in name of database (e.g.in Papers Past) after date of issue if applicable

First footnote

Mark Houlahan and others, 'Dear Hamilton…', Waikato Times, 30 August 2014, <http://www.stuff.co.nz/waikato-times/news/hamiltons-150th/10438588/Dear-Hamilton> [accessed 26 July 2016].

Subsequent footnote

Houlahan.

Bibliography

Houlahan, Mark, and others. 'Dear Hamilton…', Waikato Times, 30 August 2014, <http://www.stuff.co.nz/waikato-times/news/hamiltons-150th/10438588/Dear-Hamilton> [accessed 26 July 2016]

Plays & Live Performances

Required Information

Author's First Name and Last Name, Title of Play, ed. by Editors First Name and Last Name (if appropriate), Edition name/number (if appropriate) (Place of Publication, Publisher, Date), Act. scene. line

Note: Use the Act, Scene and Line number as it appears in your edition

First footnote

William Shakespeare, The Tempest, ed. by Stephen Orgel (Oxford: Oxford World's Classics, 1998), 1.2.25-27

Note: If you refer to the editor's words or ideas, use editor name in place of author.

Subsequent footnote

Shakespeare, 1.2.39-40.

Bibliography

Shakespeare, William, The Tempest, ed. by Stephen Orgel (Oxford: Oxford World's Classics, 1998)

Required Information

Author's First Name and Last Name, Title of Play, directed by First Name and Last Name (City: Theatre name, Date)

First footnote

William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, dir. Miles Gregory (Auckland: Pop-Up Globe Feb 22, 2016).

Subsequent footnote

Shakespeare

Note: Refer to well known [classic] works by title, or, where multiple performances of same play are being discussed, by director.

Bibliography

Shakespeare, William, Romeo and Juliet, dir. Miles Gregory (Auckland: Pop-Up Globe, Feb 22, 2016).

Required Information

Composer's First Name and Last Name, Title of Work [media type] (Location, date seen).

First footnote

Rush, Greatest Hits Tour [music concert] (Bishopthorpe Social Club, York, UK, 29 March 2015).

Subsequent footnote

Rush

Bibliography

Rush, Greatest Hits Tour [music concert] (Bishopthorpe Social Club, York, UK, 29 March 2015)

Theses

Required Information

Authors First and Last Name, Title of Thesis (thesis type, Name of Institution, Date), page number/s.

First footnote

Maebh Long, Derrida and a Theory of Irony: Parabasis and Parataxis (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Durham, 2010), p. 69.

Subsequent footnote

Long, p. 52.

Bibliography

Long, Maebh, Derrida and a Theory of Irony: Parabasis and Parataxis (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Durham, 2010)

Required Information

Author's First and Last Name, Title of Thesis, (thesis type, Name of Institution, Date), in Name of Database <URL> [Accessed date] page number/s.

First footnote

Karen Buckley, Sport in the Waikato c.1897-1974: Narratives of Play, Identity and Belonging (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Waikato, 2016), in University of Waikato Research Commons <http://hdl.handle.net/10289/10603> [accessed 22 January 2017] p. 56.

Subsequent footnote

Long, p. 52.

Bibliography

Buckley, Karen, Sport in the Waikato c.1897-1974: Narratives of Play, Identity and Belonging (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Waikato, 2016), in University of Waikato Research Commons <http://hdl.handle.net/10289/10603> [accessed 22 January 2017]

Translated Works

Required Information

Author, Title, name of translator, if stated, City, Publisher, date

First footnote

Michel Foucault, The Will to Knowledge: The History of Sexuality Vol. 1, trans. By Robert Hurley (London: Penguin, 1998), pp. 73-75.

Subsequent footnote

Foucault, p. 73.

Bibliography

Foucault, Michel, The Will to Knowledge: The History of Sexuality Vol. 1, trans. By Robert Hurley (London: Penguin, 1998)

Websites

Required Information

Author first name and last name, 'Webpage title' (if available), Website title (Place: Publisher, year or copyright date) (if available) <URL> [Date accessed]

First footnote

Glenn Everett and George P. Landow, Science and Technology Timeline, Victorian Web <http://www.victorianweb.org/science/science.html> [accessed 13 December 2016].

Subsequent footnote

Everett, para. 2

Note: Use second author name as well, if you refer to another Everett elsewhere
Note: Use paragraph numbers if applicable

Bibliography

Everett, Glenn and George Landow, Science and Technology Timeline, Victorian Web <http://www.victorianweb.org/science/science.html> [accessed 13 December 2016]