AMA Referencing Style Guide

This is a quick guide to the American Medical Association (AMA) 10th ed Manual of Style for authors. A copy of the Manual is available on Level 3 of the Hamilton Campus Library R119 .A53 2007

When you refer to another person’s ideas or information you must acknowledge the source using a superscript number (above the line) placed after a direct quote or paraphrase. This refers readers to the corresponding reference at the end of your assignment.

AMA Examples

Formatting References


  1. Items are listed numerically in the order they are entered in-text.
  2. Arabic superscript numbers should be placed after full-stops or commas, but inside colons or semi-colons (p. 43 the manual).
  3. When 2 or more references are cited, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers. Use commas without a space to separate other parts of a multiple citation. e.g. 1-2,4

Author Names

  1. Start with author's surname followed by initials. e.g. Brown JB
  2. Separate two or more authors with a comma. e.g. Smith AS, Thomas BT
  3. Include up to six authors only. For more than six, give the first 3 authors, then et al. (p. 45)

Book Titles

  1. Italicise book titles.
  2. Capitalise the first letter of all nouns in the title, and all verbs, including 2-letter verbs such as Is. Lowercase conjunctions, such as and, by and for.

Place of publication

  1. Use the name of city where the publishing city was located at the time of publication, including 2-letter state code for the US, or the country name if outside the US.
  2. Only the first city is required if more than one is listed.

Journal articles

  1. Journal articles should start with a capital letter, but thereafter only proper nouns should be in uppercase. The subtitle should also start with a lowercase, unless a proper noun.
  2. Journal titles (including magazines and newspapers), should have abbreviated titles. Use Index Medicus or LocatorPlus at the US National Library of Medicine for correct journal abbreviations.