Breadcrumbs

Figures (including Images) & Tables

For Undergraduates

N.B. This format is recommended for University of Waikato student assignments. If you are submitting a thesis, see the next section For PhD candidates (and students submitting a three or four-paper thesis).

Psychology students should use the guidelines APA Style: Tables and Figures.

Figures (including images)

Illustrations, maps, photographs, graphs, charts and drawings (excluding tables) are referred to as figures. The position and formatting of figure labels such as the figure number, title and note, are stylistic choices. The use of bold, italics etc is at the writer’s discretion.

Below are examples of how a figure could appear in text:

Figure 1 First-year students preparing for the Amazing Race

Students preparing for the Amazing Race

Note. The photo pertains to a small sample size of the participants (The University of Waikato, n.d.).

Figure 2 Moa nalo bones discovered in Hawaii

Moa bones located in Hawaii

Note. (Eickhoff, 2010).

  • NEW: The caption number and title goes above the figure. Be consistent with capitalisation.
  • Unless it is your own work, the source must be acknowledged below the figure with a parenthetical reference (Author, Date) after the word Note.
  • A description of the figure can be added in the Note area if additional information is required.
  • The full citation also goes in the reference list.

In text citation

Figure 1 shows that ... (University of Waikato, n.d.).

According to Eickhoff’s photo (2020), Moa nalo bones ...

In reference list

University of Waikato. (n.d.). [Photograph of first-year students]. https://www.waikato.ac.nz/student-life/student-experience

Eickhoff, D. (2010). Thambetochen xanion [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/dweickhoff/5126517100

  • Use no date (n.d.) if no date of publication is given.
  • NEW: For an untitled photograph, include a description in square brackets in place of title.
  • NEW: When the author and the publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the reference.
  • NEW: Include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title, for example [Infographic], [Map], [Clip art], [GIF] etc.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Tables

Tables contain information, which can be words, numbers or a mixture of both, organised in cells. Below is an example of how a table would appear in text:

Table 1 A Cross-Cultural Study of Folktale Motifs

Sample Motifs

Tales, Author

Magical powers

Rumpelstilskin (Galdone), Raven’s light (Shetterly) etc.

Transformations

Beauty and the beast (de Beaumont), The Crane wife (Yagawa), the princes and the frog (Grimm brothers) etc.

Magical objects

Aladdin (Lang), The Twelve Dancing Princesses (Mayer) etc.

Wishes

The Seven ravens (Grimm brothers), Momotaro, the Peach Boy (Shute) etc.

Trickery

The Boy of the Three-Year Nap (Snyder), The Merry Pranks of Till Eulenspiegel (Zwerger) etc.

Note. This table has been adapted from the original (Huck et al., 1997).

  • The caption number and title goes above the table. Be consistent with capitalisation.
  • Unless it is your own work, the source must be acknowledged below the table with a parenthetical reference (Author, Date) after the word Note.
  • A description of the table can be added in the Note area if additional information is required. If your table has been adapted from the original source you must state this.
  • The full citation also goes in the reference list.

In text citation

As in Table 1, folklores are … (Huck et al., 1997).

  • NEW: If there are three or more authors, cite only the first author followed by et al. (short for et alii - Latin for 'and others'). Do not italicise et al.

In reference list

Huck, C. S., Hepler, S., Hickland, J., & Kiefer, B. Z. (1997). Children’s literature in the elementary school (6th ed.). Brown & Benchmark Publishers.

  • NEW: Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be provided in the reference list. Use an ampersand before the final author’s name.
  • NEW: When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis (...), and the final name.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

For PhD candidates
(and students submitting a three or four-paper master's thesis)

N.B. This format is recommended for University of Waikato students submitting a thesis. For all other assignments, we recommend the previous section: For undergraduates.

Psychology students should use the guidelines APA Style: Tables and Figures.

Permission to reproduce copyright material must be obtained from the publisher or copyright holder. If you are reproducing or adapting a figure or table, you must provide copyright information and a permission statement at the end of the caption. Contact your Academic Liaison Librarian for more information.

You should become familiar with:

If you photograph a person, a signed release from that person is required giving permission for the photo to be used (Publication Manual, p. 388).

Figures: Basic Components

The position and formatting of figure labels such as the figure number, title and note, are stylistic choices. The use of bold, italics etc is at the writer’s discretion.

A figure requires the following components:

  1. Figure number and title.
  2. Image: Chart, graph, photograph, drawing, or other illustrations.
  3. Figure Note: This goes underneath the figure and starts with the word Note in italics followed by a full stop. Include necessary information such as:
    1. Description: If extra information is required to clarify the contents of the figure, include it underneath the figure.
    2. Source information: Unless the figure is your own work, the source must be acknowledged in full (Publication Manual of the APA, 7th ed., p. 391). Start with ‘From’ or ‘Adapted from’ as appropriate.
    3. Copyright status and permission: Copyright status has three types:
      1. Copyright year by name of copyright holder.
      2. In the public domain.
      3. Creative commons licences - e.g. CC BY-NC.

The full citation also goes in the reference list. See Copyright attribution basic formats.

Below are examples of how a figure could appear in text:

Figure 1 First-year Students

Note. From Student Experience, by University of Waikato, n.d. (https://www.waikato.ac.nz/student-life/student-experience). Copyright n.d. by University of Waikato.

In text citation

In Figure 1, students are ... (University of Waikato, n.d.).

In reference list

University of Waikato. (n.d.). Student experience. https://www.waikato.ac.nz/student-life/student-experience

  • Use no date (n.d.) if no date of publication is given.
  • This photo’s owner and author are the same so omit the website name.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Figure 2 Exercise-based labels make us think twice before buying, experts say

Exercise-based label

Note: An example of the type of nutritional information found on food packaging. From “Exercise Advice on Food Labels Could Help to Tackle the Obesity Crisis,” by New Zealand Herald, 2019 (https://www.nzherald.co.nz/lifestyle/news/article.cfm?c_id=6&objectid=12293058). Copyright 2019 by 123RF.

In text citation

Figure 2 is an example of ... (“Exercise advice on food labels,” 2019).

In reference list

Exercise advice on food labels could help to tackle the obesity crisis. (2019, December 12). New Zealand Herald. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/lifestyle/news/article.cfm?c_id=6&objectid=12293058

  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Figure 3 Movement Analysis Framework (Wheel) Depicting the Interaction of Movement Concepts and Skill Themes

Movement Analysis Framework (Wheel)

Note: This wheel is intended to be interactive, with the centre part rotating to match the different areas on the outer wheel. From Children Moving: A Reflective Approach to Teaching Physical Education (9th ed., p.35), by G. Graham, S. A. Holt/Hale, and M. Parker, 2013, McGraw-Hill. Copyright 2013 by McGraw-Hill.

In text citation

Figure 3 shows the ... (Graham et al., 2013).

In reference list

Grahan, G., Holt/Hale, S. A., & Parker, M. (2013). Children moving: A reflective approach to teaching physical education (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Figure 4 Sex Differentiation in Males

Sex Differentiation in Males

Note. Masculine brains can be determined by how testosterone works. From Sex Difference in the Human Brain, Their Underpinnings and Implications,” by F. J. Sánchez and E. Vilain, in I. Savic-Berglund (Ed.), Progress in Brain Research (p. 68), 2010, Elsevier Science & Technology (https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53630-3.00005-1). Copyright 2010 by Elsevier.

In text citation

According to the chart in Figure 4 (Sánchez & Vilain, 2010), ...

In reference list

Sánchez, F. J., & Vilain, E. (2010). Sex difference in the human brain, their underpinnings and Implications. In I. Savic-Berglund (Ed.), Progress in brain research (pp. 64-76). Elsevier Science & Technology. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53630-3.00005-1

Copyrighted Image (From a Journal Article)

Figure 5 Ratite Egg Phylogeny and Eggshell Strength

Ratite Egg Phylogeny and Eggshell Strength

Note. Relative egg sizes are shown based on volumes calculated from shape dimensions or shell thickness. From “Ancient DNA Reveals Extreme Egg Morphology and Nesting Behavior in New Zealand’s Extinct Moa,” by L. Huynen, B. J. Gill, C. D. Millar, and D. M. Lambert, 2010, PNAS, 107(37), p. 16204

  • The journal publisher is usually the copyright owner of material in the journal.

In text citation

Ratite egg phylogeny and eggshell strength can be illustrated as Figure 5 (Huynen et al., 2010).

  • NEW: If there are three or more authors, cite only the first author followed by et al. (short for et alii - Latin for 'and others'). Do not italicise et al.

In reference list

Huynen, L., Gill, B. J., Craig D. Millar, D., & Lambert, D. M. (2010). Ancient DNA reveals extreme egg morphology and nesting behavior in New Zealand’s extinct moa. PNAS, 107(37), 16201-16206. https://www.pnas.org/content/107/37/16201

  • NEW: Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be provided in the reference list. Use an ampersand before the final author’s name.
  • NEW: When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis (...), and the final name.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Public Domain Image (From Webpage)

Figure 6 University of Waikato Village Green

University of Waikato Village Green

Note. The University of Waikato campus grounds includes shops and a bank. From File:University of Waikato Village Green.jpg, by Waikato Wordwizard, 2009, Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:University_of_Waikato_village_green.jpg). In the public domain.

In text citation

See Figure 6. It indicates that …  (Waikato Wordwizard, 2009).

In reference list

Waikato Wordwizard. (2009, May 1). File:University of Waikato village green.jpg. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:University_of_Waikato_village_green.jpg

  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Creative Commons Licensed Image (From Webpage)

Figure 7 Valle de la Luna - La Paz, Bolivia.

Valle de la Luna - la Paz, Bolivia

Note. Bolivia’s La Paz. From Flickr, by Mikel, 2012, Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/mikelpierre/7180897776/). CC BY-NC 2.0.

In text citation

Figure 7 shows that … (Mikel, 2012),

In reference list

Mikel. (2012). Valle de la Luna - La Paz, Bolivia [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/mikelpierre/7180897776/

  • When referencing a photograph which is not a part of a webpage (e.g. Instagram photo, Flickr photo), use this format. For an untitled photograph, include a description in square brackets in place of the title.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Tables: Basic Components

A table requires the following components:

  1. Table number and title.
  2. Table body.
  3. Table Note: This goes underneath the table and starts with the word Note in italics followed by a full stop. Include necessary information such as:
    1. Description: If extra information is required to clarify the contents of the table, include it underneath the table.
    2. Source information: Unless the table is your own work, the source must be acknowledged in full (Publication Manual of the APA, 7th ed., p. 391). Start with ‘From’ or ‘Adapted from’ as appropriate.
    3. Copyright status and permission: Copyright status has three types:
      1. Copyright year by name of copyright holder.
      2. In the public domain.
      3. Creative commons licences - e.g. CC BY-NC.

The full citation also goes in the reference list. See Copyright attribution basic formats.

Table adapted from Book

Table 1 A Cross-Cultural Study of Folktale Motifs

Sample Motifs

Tales, Author

Magical powers

Rumpelstilskin (Galdone), Raven’s light (Shetterly) etc.

Transformations

Beauty and the beast (de Beaumont), The Crane wife (Yagawa), the princes and the frog (Grimm brothers) etc.

Magical objects

Aladdin (Lang), The Twelve Dancing Princesses (Mayer) etc.

Wishes

The Seven ravens (Grimm brothers), Momotaro, the Peach Boy (Shute) etc.

Trickery

The Boy of the Three -Year Nap (Snyder), The Merry Pranks of Till Eulenspiegel (Zwerger) etc.

Note. Adapted from Children’s Literature in the Elementary School (p. 279), by C. S. Huck, S. Hepler, J. Hickland and B. Z. Kiefer, 1997, Brown & Benchmark Publishers. Copyright 1997 by Time Mirror Higher Education Group.

  • The copyright owner and the publisher are not always the same.

In text citation

As in Table 1, folklores are … (Huck et al., 1997).

In reference list

Huck, C. S., Hepler, S., Hickland, J., & Kiefer, B. Z. (1997). Children’s literature in the elementary school (6th ed.). Brown & Benchmark Publishers.