We regularly update these pages and the linked resources. Please contact Te Puna Ako if you would like to see more on particular aspects of assessment.

Works cited and additional resources

Ajjawi, R., Bearman, M., & Boud, D. (2021). Performing standards: a critical perspective on the contemporary use of standards in assessment, Teaching in Higher Education, 26:5, 728-741, doi: 10.1080/13562517.2019.1678579

Ajjawi, R., Tai, J., Boud, D., & De St. Jorre, T. J. (Eds.) (2023). Assessment for inclusion in higher education: Promoting equity and social justice. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003293101

Ambrose, S.A., Bridges, M.W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M.C., & Norman, M.K. (2023). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching (2nd ed.)John Wiley & Sons.

Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university. McGraw Hill.

Bloom, B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook: The cognitive domain. David McKay.

Burgstahler, S. (Ed.) (2015). Universal design in higher education: From principles to practice. Harvard Education Press.

CAST (2018). Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.2https://udlguidelines.cast.org/

Krathwohl, D. & Anderson, L.W. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Longman.

Naylor, R., Baik, C., Asmar, C., & Watty, K. (2014). Good feedback practices. The University of Melbourne.

Rapp, W. H. (2014). Universal design for learning in action: 100 ways to teach all learners. Brookes Publishing.

Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Zierer, K.& Wisniewski, B. (2019). Using Student Feedback for Successful Teaching. Routledge.

About Backward Design

Universal Design for Learning—A Paradigm for Maximum Inclusion | Terence Brady | TEDxWestFurongRoad

University support on assessment

Te Puna Ako

Te Puna Ako - Centre for Tertiary Teaching & Learning’s Teaching Development Team provides support in assessment design and other teaching practices through the Postgraduate Certificate in Tertiary Teaching & Learning, workshops, one-on-one guidance and other professional development initiatives. Te Puna Ako’s Student Learning Team provides support for students completing assessments as well as other aspects of their studies. Reach out or join Te Puna Ako’s twice daily Ask Me Anything sessions if you want to chat more.

Other support

Student Services Division

Te Whare Pukapuka - The Library

Contact for Faculties, Schools, and Divisions


Te Puna Ako - Centre for Tertiary Teaching & Learning wishes to acknowledge the work of the former Teaching Development Unit in the initial development of this handbook and associated assessment material. Thank you also to the many staff from around the university who provided comments on different sections of the handbook, and to Maria-Teresa Corino, who copyedited the handbook text and designed the web interface.

For information about images in this handbook, see these articles on some of the murals and other artwork which have enriched and brightened  the University of Waikato Hamilton and Tauranga campuses in recent years.