Academic excellence: Agri

Sustainable, Efficient Food Production

The latest advances in technology, science, engineering, environmental stewardship and business come together on the farm, driving national and international success. Constant evolution is key to survival and growth – and the University of Waikato has been a trusted partner for more than 50 years, helping Kiwi farmers to stay one step ahead while also exporting agricultural innovations around the world.

The latest advances in technology, science, engineering, environmental stewardship and business come together on the farm.


The latest advances in technology, science, engineering, environmental stewardship and business come together on the farm.

KickerThis is a kicker.

**_In 1964 the University of Waikato was founded on rolling farmland and orchards on the outskirts of Hamilton. More than 50 years later the original farm cowshed remains a permanent feature of the Hamilton campus; an enduring reminder of the University of Waikatos strong ties with agriculture_.**

Thoughts of farming might evoke images of gumboots and hard physical labour under the sun \- perhaps even the old stereotype brawn over brains. But take a closer look and its clear that the modern farming environment is anything but simple. The latest advances in technology, science, engineering, environmental stewardship and business come together on the farm, driving national and international success. Constant evolution is key to survival and growth  and the University of Waikato has been a trusted partner for more than 50 years, helping Kiwi farmers to stay one step ahead while also exporting agricultural innovations around the world.

**_Better, safer crops_**

In the science lab, University of Waikato researchers are working to support and protect farmers livelihoods, identifying new ways to improve crop quality and address environmental threats. Postgraduate student Danielle Le Lievre is working to improve the taste of the new disease\-resistant Zespri kiwifruit variety \(known as SunGold\) by looking at how orchard conditions contribute to the gradual accumulation of flavour compounds from flowering to harvest.

Danielles project is part of a larger collaboration between the University, Plant & Food Research and Zespri that looks at how sugars, acids and starch are made as the SunGold fruit grows, providing a better understanding of how to grow the best\-tasting fruit. The results are already providing new information on how fruit growth responds to orchard management and the environment. Thats good news for growers, exporters and the Christmas pavlova.

University of Waikato Masters student Shannon Hunter is working to protect a much\-loved part of breakfasts, burgers and salads around the world, investigating ways to prevent a widespread avocado disease known as root rot. The 2017 recipient of the University of Waikatos $22,000 [New Zealand Agricultural Fieldays Sir Don Llewellyn Scholarship](\-national\-agricultural\-fieldays\-sir\-don\-llewellyn\-scholarship) is investigating whether the pathogen that causes avocado root rot is developing resistance to the fungicide currently used to protect avocado trees. The phosphite fungicide used to manage root rot is widely used across all agricultural sectors for disease management. It is currently being tested for use in protecting kauri and pine, so resistance is a very real and urgent threat.

> Shannons results will not only be important for the vibrant and expanding avocado industry. They'll also be useful for understanding the threat of loss of control of several other _Phytophthora_ pathogens affecting the agricultural sector.

The NZ Avocado Industry Research Council and Scion are collaborating with Shannon on her research, which involves gathering samples from six avocado orchards in the Bay of Plenty. She says New Zealands use of phosphite to manage avocado root rot for more than 25 years means it provides an excellent model system to study fungicide resistance. Her scholarship will fund a research trip to the USA where she will work with researchers from the University of California, Riverside to test their cultures from avocado orchards and the University of California, Berkeley, to test other important species for phosphite resistance.

Stevie Noe spends most days in a greenhouse collecting and analysing nectar from mnuka plants in order to produce better honey. His Masters research involves measuring how much nectar is produced in the flowers and how its quality changes based on different growing conditions such as temperature, humidity and light. As part of this, Stevie tests the quality of the nectar based on how much dihydroxyacetone \(DHA\) is present. DHA converts tomethylglyoxal \(MGO\) which is the key ingredient that gives mnuka honey its reputed health properties. The more DHA there is in the nectar, the more MGO there will be in the honey.

> Honey is a big deal at the moment. The industry is trying to grow as theres more demand than supply, and the government is backing this growth. Hopefully by the end of my study Ill be able to tell growers how best to test their mnuka plants to get top results.

Stevies research has been helped along by two Waikato postgraduate scholarships, as well as Pre\-Seed Accelerator Funding \(PSAF\) from the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, testament to the importance of his work to New Zealands booming honey industry.

The robot revolution

A farm might not be somewhere youd expect to meet a robot but Professor Mike Duke from the Universitys Faculty of Science and Engineering wants to turn robots into everyday farming tools. Professor Duke and his team are taking robots from factories to fields, using robotics to do everything from picking kiwifruit and asparagus, to planting, lifting and grading pine tree seedlings back\-breaking work that depends on precision and careful handling. All the while these machines are also collecting data about the crops theyre processing, allowing better decisions to be made about current and future harvests.

Robots will increasingly be used in industries that struggle to attract and retain staff. With New Zealands primary industry\-linked exports set to double by 2025, there simply arent enough humans to keep up with demand.

> Robots never sleep, which makes them ideal workers. Theyll do the work humans should no longer be expected to do, and they work through the night without any extra cost.

The introduction of robotics and smart machinery into the countrys primary industries could save farmers and companies money while simultaneously improving safety and quality. And these remarkable machines are just the beginning. The University team is already looking beyond harvesting machines to robots that will be able to perform jobs such as pollination, weed spraying, thinning, transportation, quality control and pasture repair, further increasing productivity and turning robots into the farmers best friend. This particular brand of high\-tech Kiwi ingenuity has also found its admirers overseas, with new opportunities to export agricultural robots arising by the day.

**_Driving success beyond the farm gate_**

New Zealand is home to some of the worlds best farmers, but making a good living can be a challenge in a highly competitive market. The Universitys Management School is training a new generation of agribusiness specialists to help farmers and agricultural businesses to grow their profits and reap the benefits of their hard work. Agribusiness is the vital link in the chain that takes agricultural products beyond the farm gate and turns them into profits. Students gain an all\-round understanding of the agricultural sector, including farm management, soil and nutrient management, rural financial management and banking, and value\-chain management. Agribusiness also looks beyond New Zealand to the possibilities offered by international exports. Professor of Economics Frank Scrimgeour says that agribusiness dominates New Zealand exports and our largest businesses are in the agribusiness sector.

> New Zealand agribusiness provides huge opportunities to gain experience in international commerce as our products are sold on every continent, reaching high\-end consumers and the protein needs of people with limited incomes.

Its a sector with deep connections into the research and development community as agribusiness entrepreneurs develop and apply new technologies which enhance the economic, environmental, and social performance of agri\-food systems. Agribusiness students learn about international marketing and sales, technological innovations, the impact of free\-trade agreements, and how sustainable farming practices can be used to reduce costs and gain a competitive advantage. Courses are delivered in collaboration with successful companies such as Fonterra, the Tatua Co\-operative Dairy Company and DairyNZ, with graduates in high demand by employers.

**_Dishing the dirt on climate change_**

Modern farmers recognise that environmental sustainability is key to long\-term success. Ground\-breaking research by the University of Waikato is helping farmers to be good custodians of the land and waterways they manage. Researchers are working with the Ministry of Primary Industries and international counterparts around the world to reduce and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through good farming practices. A greenhouse gas is any gas that traps heat in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide \(CO2\), methane \(CH4\) and nitrous oxide \(N2O\) are some of the most common types. Farms can be a big source of emissions  peat soils are a significant contributor to soil carbon emissions and methane from sheep and cattle accounts for almost one third of New Zealands total greenhouse gas emissions  but, with careful management, emissions can be reduced and even eliminated. In parallel with research to determine the best ways to manage agricultural emissions, Professor Louis Schipper, Associate Professor David Campbell and postdoctoral researcher Dr Susanna Rutledge from the University of Waikato's [Environmental Research Institute]( are part of a major international research project to investigate whether carbon levels in soils can be increased, effectively burying \(sequestering\) and removing carbon from the atmosphere. Varying types of crops may be one way to sequester carbon so the research team is comparing different crops and pastures to determine which mix most effectively increases carbon soil inputs. With funding from the New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre, and working in collaboration with Crown Research Institutes Landcare Research, AgResearch and DairyNZ, the team is measuring and comparing carbon exchange at adjacent pasture areas at a dairy farm near Waharoa. This important work has the potential to support achievement of the Global Sustainable Development Goals, enhance food security and mitigate climate change. It also has the potential to transform farms from producers of greenhouse gases into carbon sinks that help to reduce gases and slow global warming.

**_Healthy communities, healthy farms_**

Healthy farms are powered by healthy communities. The University of Waikato works to support the health and wellbeing of rural communities through a range of initiatives. Professor of Population Health Ross Lawrenson is one of the Universitys many passionate advocates for rural health.  Amongst other initiatives, he is leading a three\-year project to improve early access to lung cancer diagnosis for Mori and rural communities.

> We need to be supporting our rural areas better. Rural communities are the backbone of New Zealand, yet their access to health services is poor.

Professor Lawrenson says the highest occurrence of cardiovascular disease is in rural towns, and GPs in cities far outweigh those in rural towns per head of population. To address this problem, the University of Waikato and the Waikato District Health Board have submitted a proposal to the government to establish New Zealands third medical school. If the government accepts this proposal, students will be able to enrol as early as 2021. The Waikato Medical School will focus on enrolling students from vulnerable and rural communities, training a new generation of community\-focused doctors and health professionals who understand the needs of rural communities and support their success.

Meet our people

Frank Scrimgeour, former president of the New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, director of the Institute for Business Research and Professor of Economics. His research informs economic policy and business practice.

Michael Clearwater is a senior lecturer in the Biological Sciences department. His research focuses on the physiology and ecology of plants and berry fruits, including kiwifruit.

Mike Duke, the University's Mechanical Engineering programme leader, is driving the robot revolution in horticulture, ensuring New Zealand's primary industries are future-fit and able to meet export demands.

Louis Schipper is an environmental biogeochemist who has research interests in nutrient cycling in agricultural and indigenous ecosystems, including wetlands and soil microbial ecology.

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