Breadcrumbs

Audiovisual

Film or video

In text citation

(Fellini, 2001)

(Hargrave, 2020)

or

Fellini (2001)

Hargrave (2020)

In reference list

Fellini, F. (Director). (2001). Roma [Film]. MGM Home Entertainment.

Hargrave, S. (Director). (2020). Extraction [Film]. Netflix.

  • The director should be credited as the Author. If the director is unknown, someone in a similar role can be credited.
  • NEW: It is not necessary to specify how you watched a film (e.g. in a theatre, on Blu-ray, streaming online). However, the format or other descriptive information may be included (e.g. [Film; Director's cut ed. Blu-ray], [Film; DVD], [Film; Kanopy]).
  • NEW: The motion picture’s country of origin is no longer required.

Music recording - album

In text citation

(Petrucciani, 1987)

In reference list

Petrucciani, M. (1987). Power of three [Album recorded by J. Hall, W. Shorter, & M. Petrucciani]. Blue Note.

  • NEW: It is not necessary to specify how you listened to the music (e.g. online streaming, via mobile app, on CD)
  • NEW: For a recording of a classical work, provide the composer as the author, and note in the square brackets the individual or group who recorded the version you used. Provide the publication date for the version you used, and then provide the year of original composition in parentheses at the end.
  • NEW: Publisher locations (city/state/country) are no longer required.

Music recording - single song or track (part of album)

In text citation

"Amazing Grace" (Newton, 1779/2009)

or

Newton's celebrated song (1779/2009) says…

In Act II of his only opera Fidelio (Beethoven, 2011), the composer depicts a scene ...

In reference list

Newton, J. (2009). Amazing grace [Song recorded by S. Boyle]. On I dreamed a dream. Sony Music Entertainment. (Original work published 1779)

Beethoven, L. van. (2011). Fidelio [Song recorded by Philharmonia Orchestra]. On Wilhelm Furtwangler: The great EMI recordings. EMI Classics. (Original work published 1814).

  • NEW: It is not necessary to specify how you listened to the music (e.g. online streaming, via mobile app, on CD)
  • NEW: [Song] is a description about any piece or track from a set of musical recordings. [Song] can be a sound effect, musical show, opera or symphony if it is a part of an album (a complication of various recordings in a set).
  • NEW: If the song has no associated album, omit the album part.
  • NEW: For a recording of a classical work, provide the composer as the author, and note in the square brackets the individual or group who recorded the version you used. Provide the publication date for the version you used, and then provide the year of original composition in parentheses at the end.
  • NEW: Publisher locations (city/state/country) are no longer required.

Podcast episode

In text citation

(de Silva & Zhu, 2019)

or

… had been said. de Silva and Zhu (2019) argue that…

  • NEW: Do not capitalise a personal name that begins with a lowercase letter when the name begins a sentence.

In reference list

de Silva, S.,& Zhu, J. (Hosts). (2019, November 18). Conversations with my immigrant parents [Audio podcast episode]. RNZ. https://www.rnz.co.nz/programmes/conversations-with-my-immigrant-parents/story/2018722687/trailer-conversations-with-my-immigrant-parents-on-rnz-co-nz

  • List the host of the podcast as the author.
  • Specify the type of podcast (audio or video) in square brackets.
  • Omit the URL if the URL is unknown (e.g. accessed from an app).
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

TV series episode

In text citation

In this episode, Harvard genealogist George Church (Pelley, 2019) discussed that …

  • When speakers are not listed as the author, integrate their name into the narrative. In this example, George Church is the main subject in the episode reported by Pelley.

In reference list

Pelley, S. (Writer). (2019, December 8). A Harvard geneticist's goal: To protect humans from viruses, genetic diseases, and aging [TV series episode]. In H. Schuster (Producer), R. Morehouse (Associate Producer), & I. Flickinger (Broadcast associate), 60 minutes. CBS News Production.

  • Include writer(s), director etc. for the episode. Include the contributor roles in parenthesis after each contributor’s name. When information is missing, omit it.
  • NEW: Publisher locations (city/state/country) are no longer required.

YouTube or other streaming video

In text citation

Larrive argued that “to fight against climate change intelligently …” (Euronews, 2019, 0:17-0:22)
The Physics Girl explains that … (Cowern, 2019)

In reference list

Cowern, D.  [Physics Girl]. (2019, October 4). World’s largest camera lens [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=33UMkPe93Ko

Euronews. (2019, July 27). Greta Thunberg urges French MPs to 'listen to scientists’ and act to reduce global warming [Video]. Dailymotion. https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x7e0yu6

  • Use the uploader's name as the author, even if they did not create the video.
  • NEW: Present the name of the individual or group author the same as you would for any other reference. Then provide the username in square brackets.
  • Note any contributor not listed as the author in the reference into the narrative if desired (e.g. Interviewee).
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.