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Books

Book or ebook - by one author

In text citation

(Fennell, 2018, p. 86)
(King, 2000)

or

Fennell (2018) defines relativism as “...” (p. 86).
King (2000) compares Frame with ...

In reference list

Fennell, D. A. (2018). Tourism ethics. Channel View Publications. https://doi.org/10.21832/FENNEL6355

King, M. (2000). Wrestling with the angel: A life of Janet Frame. Viking.

  • If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is available, include it at the end of the reference.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

How to format APA Style section for detailed formatting information.

Book or ebook - by two authors

In text citation

(Clarke & Peterson, 2016, p. 106)
(Treviño & Nelson, 2007)

or

Clarke and Peterson (2016) describe “...” (p. 106)
Treviño and Nelson (2007) found that...

When citing in-text, if the authors' names are in parentheses, use the & symbol. Otherwise, when outside the parentheses use and between the two authors’ names.

In reference list

Clarke, T., & Peterson, T. R. (2016). Environmental conflict management. SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483399522

Treviño, L. K., & Nelson, K. A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right. Wiley.

  • If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is available, include it at the end of the reference.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Book or ebook - by three or more authors

In text citation

(Baguley et al., 2014)
(Krause et al., 2006, p.32)

or

Baguley et al. (2014) found ...
Krause et al. (2006) recommend “...” (p. 32).

  • NEW: If there are three or more authors, cite only the first author followed by et al. (short for et alii - Latin for 'and others'). Do not italicise et al.

In reference list

Baguley, M., Danaher, P. A., Davies, A., De George-Walker, L., Jones, J. K., Matthews, K. J., Midgley, W., & Arden, C. H. (2014). Educational learning and development: Building and enhancing capacity. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137392848

Krause, K.-L., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S. (2006). Educational psychology for learning and teaching (2nd ed.). Thomson.

  • If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is available, include it at the end of the reference.
  • NEW: Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be provided in the reference list. Use an ampersand before the final author’s name.
  • NEW: When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis (...), and the final name.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

How to format APA Style section for detailed formatting information.

Book or ebook - by a group author

In text citation

First in text citation

(American Psychological Association [APA], 2010, p. 11)
(The Independent Evaluation Group [IEG], 2008)

or

The American Psychological Association (APA, 2010) indicated “...” (p. 11)
The Independent Evaluation Group (IEG, 2008) found that ...

In subsequent citations

According to APA (2010) ...
IEG (2008) also found …

  • Some group authors may be abbreviated in subsequent citations if they are readily recognisable.
  • Note use of square brackets around abbreviation in the first examples above.

In reference list

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.

Independent Evaluation Group. (2008). The welfare impact of rural electrification: A reassessment of the costs and benefits. The World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7367-5

  • When the author and the publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the reference. List in the references by the first significant word of the organisation.
  • When numerous layers of government agencies are listed as the author, use the most specific agency as the author. The names of the parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher. For group authors, the parent body precedes a subdivision.
  • If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is available, include it at the end of the reference.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Book or ebook - cited in a secondary source

In text citation

(Carter & Beadle, 1930, as cited in Crisman & Streever, 1996)
(Diamond, 1993, as cited in Fennell, 2018, p. 167)

or

Carter and Beadle's (1930, as cited in Crisman & Streever, 1996) research shows that ...
Diamond (1993) observed “...” (as cited in Fennell, 2018, p. 167)

In reference list

Crisman, T. L., & Streever, W. J. (1996). The legacy and future of tropical limnology. In F. Schiemer & K. T. Boland (Eds.), Perspectives in tropical limnology (pp. 27-42). SPB Academic.

Fennell, D. A. (2018). Tourism ethics. Channel View Publications. https://doi.org/10.21832/FENNEL6355

  • Reference only Crisman and Streever (1996), not Carter and Beadle (1930).
  • See also How to format APA: Format Citations in Text.
  • If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is available, include it at the end of the reference.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Book, ebook or audio book - republished/reprint

In text citation

(Baldwin, 1909/1980)
(Twain, 1885/2018, Chapter 2, para. 1)

or

Baldwin (1909/1980) criticised …
Twain’s (1885/2018) language “...” (Chapter 2, para. 1) shows ...

  • Both the original publication year and the year of the republished book are included.
  • If you quote from online material and there are no page numbers, provide either a section heading, paragraph number (para.), or both.

In reference list

Baldwin, J. M. (1980). Darwin and the humanities. AMS. (Original work published 1909)

Twain, M. (2018). Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/76/76-h/76-h.htm (Original work published 1885)

  • Information about the original publication is included in parentheses after the publisher's name, DOI or URL (for ebooks freely available on the internet).
  • Note there is no full stop after the parenthesis.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Book - in another language

In text citation

(Arnaud, 2018, p. 31)
(Murakami, 2013)

or

Arnaud (2018) describes the marketplace as “...” (p. 31)
Murakami (2013) explains ...

In reference list

Arnaud, C. (2018). Topographien des Alltags: Bologna und Straẞburg um 1400 [Everyday topographies: Bologna and Strasbourg around 1400]. De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110545906

Murakami, H. (2013). Shikisai o motanai Tazaki Tsukuru to kare no junrei no toshi [Colorless Tsukuru Tazaki and his years of pilgrimage]. Bungei Shunju.

  • Include a translation of the book title in square brackets if a book’s language is different from your paper’s language. The translation does not have to be literal, but use appropriate grammar and punctuation in the translated title.
  • Transliterate a book title into the Roman alphabet if the book uses a different alphabet such as Arabic, Chinese and Hindi (e.g. Zhongguo funu for 中国妇女).
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Book - translated

In text citation

(Fogazzaro, 1906/2010, p. 39)
(Sartre, 1936/2012)

or

Fogazzaro (1906/2010) describes Franco as “...” (p. 39).
Sartre (1936/2012) is an example of …

  • NEW: Both the original publication year and the year of the translated book are included.

In reference list

Fogazzaro, A. (2010). The patriot (M. Pritchard-Agnetti, Trans.). Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/33778/33778-h/33778-h.htm (Original work published 1906)

Sartre, J.-P. (2012). Imagination: A psychological critique (K. Williford & D. Rudrauf, Trans.). Routledge. (Original work published 1936)

  • Information about the original publication is included in parentheses after the publisher's name, DOI or URL (for ebooks freely available on the internet).
  • Note there is no full stop after the parenthesis.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Chapter in an edited book

In text citation

(Kumarasiri, 2012)
(Neilson, 2005, p. 418)

or

Kumarasiri (2012) concludes by …
Neilson (2005) states “…” (p. 418)

In reference list

Kumarasiri, J. (2012). Management accounting practices for sustainability. In G. N. Gregoriou & N. Finch (Eds.), Best practices in management accounting (pp. 101-114). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230361553

Neilson, W. (2005). Physical activity, participation and disability. In D. Fraser, R. Moltzen & K. Ryba (Eds.), Learners with special needs in Aotearoa New Zealand (3rd ed., pp. 411-422). Dunmore Press.

  • The author and chapter title come first, followed by the editor(s) and book title.
  • Note the editor's initials come before the family name.
  • It is the book title that is italicised, not the chapter title. The page numbers of the chapter are also required.
  • If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is available, include it at the end of the reference.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Edited book

In text citation

(Samovar et al., 2015)
(VanLear & Canary, 2017)

or

Samovar et al. (2015) conclude by …
VanLear and Canary (2017) highlight ...

  • NEW: If there are three or more authors, cite only the first author followed by et al. (short for et alii - Latin for 'and others'). Do not italicise et al.

In reference list

Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E., McDaniel, E. R., & Sexton Roy, C. (Eds.). (2015). Intercultural communication: A reader (14th ed.). Cengage Learning.

VanLear, C. A., & Canary, D. J. (Eds.). (2017). Researching interactive communication behavior: A sourcebook of methods and measures. SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781506349169

  • Include (Ed.) or (Eds.) after their name(s).
  • If you are citing a chapter within an edited book, review the previous section, Chapter in an edited book.
  • NEW: Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be provided in the reference list. Use an ampersand before the final author’s name.
  • NEW: When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis (...), and the final name.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Edited Book – Classical work

In text citation

"What's past is prologue" (Shakespeare, 1604/1999, p.121).

  • If the published date of an original work is known, use the original publication date as publication date, plus the publication date of the edited version.

In reference list

Shakespeare, W. (1999). The tempest (P. Holland, Ed.). Penguin. (Original work published 1604)

  • Use parentheses to acknowledge the editor’s name.
  • Information about the original publication is included in parentheses after the publisher's name, DOI or URL (for ebooks freely available on the internet).
  • Note there is no full stop after the parenthesis.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Audio book

In text citation

(Williams, 2016)

or

Williams (2016) captures …

Reference list

Williams, S. (2016). The girl who climbed Everest (H. Norris, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Audible Australia. https://adbl.co/36UORI7

  • NEW: If using an audio book from a provider such as Audible, provide the URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.
  • NEW: You may use a URL shortening service (i.e. TinyURL or Bit.ly) to reduce very long URLs.

Reference book - dictionary or encyclopedia entry (with author)

In text citation

(Hwang, 2002)
(Swarbrick, 2015, The 21st Century section, para. 3)

or

Hwang (2002) identifies the hurdles North Korea …
Swarbrick (2015) explains “...” (The 21st Century section, para. 3)

  • If you quote from online material and there are no page numbers (e.g. HTML based document), provide either a section heading, paragraph number (para.), or both.

In reference list

Hwang, E.-G. (2002). North Korea: Economic system. In D. Levinson & K. Christenson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of modern Asia (Vol. 4, pp. 350-353). Charles Scribner's Sons.

Swarbrick, N. (2015, July 1). Page 13: Te Kīngitanga, 1880 onwards. In Te Ara: The encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. https://teara.govt.nz/en/waikato-region/page-13

  • Note the editors' initials precede the family name.
  • If there is a volume number or edition (not 1st edition), include this in parentheses after the title along with page number(s).
  • If you feel your webpage is likely to change or be updated, include an access date eg Retrieved January 14, 2020, from URL.
  • When information is missing, for example if there are no editors listed, omit it from the reference.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Reference book - dictionary or encyclopedia entry (with no author)

In text citation

It is defined as ... ("Social Constructionism," 2015)

Whakataukī include … (“Whakataukī,” n.d.)

  • Note that the entry is capitalised when used in text, but not in the reference list.

In reference list

Social constructionism. (2015). In J. Scott (Ed.), A dictionary of sociology (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acref/9780199533008.001.0001

Whakataukī. (n.d.). In Te Aka Online Māori Dictionary. Te Ipukarea Research Institute. https://maoridictionary.co.nz/search?idiom=&phrase=&proverb=&loan=&histLoanWords=&keywords=whakatauki

  • Use no date (n.d.) if no date of publication is given.
  • If you feel your webpage is likely to change or be updated, include an access date eg Retrieved January 14, 2020, from URL.
  • When information is missing, for example if there are no editors listed, omit it from the reference.
  • NEW: Do not use publisher locations (city/state/country).
  • NEW: For ebooks, include both the publisher and DOI (if available) or URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Wikipedia entry

In text citation

(“Taika Waititi,” 2020)

or

"Taika Waititi" (2016) outlines …

In reference list

Taika Waititi. (2020, January 14). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taika_Waititi&oldid=935796627

  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.