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Journals

Journal article - with a DOI

In text citation

(Sainaghi, 2008)

or

Sainaghi (2008) suggests...

In reference list

Sainaghi, R. (2008). Strategic position and performance of winter destinations. Tourism Review, 63(4), 40-57. https://doi.org/10.1108/16605370810912209uj

  • If a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, include it at the end of the reference.
  • NEW: When a DOI is available, include it in the reference regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
  • If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
  • Journal titles use title case (i.e. a capital letter is used for key words). The journal title and volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in parentheses (not italicised).
  • NEW: Include the issue number for all journals that have issue numbers.
  • NEW: Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be provided in the reference list. Use an ampersand before the final author’s name.
  • NEW: When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis (...), and the final name

Journal article - advance online publication with a DOI

In text citation

(von Ledebur, 2007)

or

… after the test. von Ledebur (2007) considered…

  • NEW: Do not capitalise a personal name that begins with a lowercase letter when the name begins a sentence.

In reference list

von Ledebur, S. C. (2007). Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.8500141

  • An advance online publication is one that has been accepted by the journal but has not yet been given a volume, issue or page number. These will be assigned at a later date.
  • Cite the version of the work that you used. Ideally, use and cite the final, published version of a work.
  • Journal titles use title case (i.e. a capital letter is used for key words). The journal title and volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in parentheses (not italicised).

Journal article - with no DOI

In text citation

(Shepherd et al., 2007)

or

Shepherd et al. (2007) highlight the...

  • NEW: If there are three or more authors, cite only the first author followed by et al. (short for et alii - Latin for 'and others'). Do not italicise et al.

In reference list

Shepherd, R., Barnett, J., Cooper, H., Coyle, A., Moran-Ellis, J., Senior, V., & Walton, C. (2007). Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning. Social Science & Medicine, 65(2), 377-392.

  • For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every in-text citation.
  • For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus “et al.” in every citation, unless this would create ambiguity.
  • et al. is short for et alii - Latin for 'and others'. Do not italicise et al.
  • NEW: Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be provided in the reference list. Use an ampersand before the final author’s name.
  • NEW: When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis (...), and the final name.
  • Journal titles use title case (i.e. a capital letter is used for key words). The journal title and volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in parentheses (not italicised).
  • Do not include the database name or URL.

Journal article - online only

In text citation

(Snell & Hodgetts, n.d.)

or

Snell and Hodgetts (n.d.) identified "..." (para. 3)

  • If you quote from online material and there are no page numbers, provide either a section heading, paragraph number (para.), or both.

In reference list

Snell, D., & Hodgetts, D. (n.d.). The psychology of heavy metal communities and white supremacy. Te Kura Kete Aronui, 1. http://www.waikato.ac.nz/wfass/tkka

  • Use no date (n.d.) if no date of publication is given.
  • Journal titles use title case (i.e. a capital letter is used for key words). The journal title and volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in parentheses (not italicised).
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before a URL.

Journal article - with continuous pagination

In text citation

(Dudova et al., 2015)
(Boren, 2019)

or

Dudova et al. (2015) believe “…” (p. 1640).
Boren (2019) believes …

  • NEW: If there are three or more authors, cite only the first author followed by et al. (short for et alii - Latin for 'and others'). Do not italicise et al.

In reference list

Dudova, I., Kocourkova, J., & Koutek, J. (2015). Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11, 1639-1643. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S83831

Boren, B. B. (2019). Computational acoustic musicology. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, 34(4), 707–715. https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqy073

  • For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation.
  • For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus “et al.” in every citation, unless this would create ambiguity.
  • et al. is short for et alii - Latin for 'and others'). Do not italicise et al.
  • NEW: Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be provided in the reference list. Use an ampersand before the final author’s name.
  • NEW: When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis (...), and the final name.
  • Journal titles use title case (i.e. a capital letter is used for keywords). The journal title and volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in parentheses (not italicised).
  • Some journals do not supply issue numbers. When information is missing, omit it.
  • Many journals in Psychology and other disciplines use continuous pagination.
  • NEW: Include the issue number for all journals that have issue numbers (p.294) even if pagination is continuous.

Journal article - cited in a secondary source

In text citation

(Lilieholm & Romney, 2000, as cited in Suntikul et al., 2010)

or

Lilieholm and Romney (2000, as cited in Suntikul et al., 2010) argue that ...

  • NEW: If there are three or more authors, cite only the first author followed by et al. (short for et alii - Latin for 'and others'). Do not italicise et al.

In reference list

Suntikul, W., Butler, R., & Airey, D. (2010). Implications of political change on national park operations: Doi moi and tourism to Vietnam's national parks. Journal of Ecotourism, 9(3), 201-218. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040903144360

  • If possible, find, read and cite the primary source.
  • Journal titles use title case (i.e. a capital letter is used for key words). The journal title and volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in parentheses (not italicised).
  • NEW: Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be provided in the reference list. Use an ampersand before the final author’s name.
  • NEW: When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis (...), and the final name.

Journal article with an eLocator or article number  e.g. Article Number, Eric number, or eLocator

In text citation

(Iyer-Eimerbrink & Jensen-Campbell, 2019) ...

or 

Iyer-Eimerbrink and Jensen-Campbell (2019) ...

In reference list

Iyer-Eimerbrink, P. A., & Jensen-Campbell, L. A. (2019). The long-term consequences of peer victimization on physical and psychological health: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 24(4), Article e12174. https://doi.org/10.1111/jabr.12174

  • A capital letter is used for key words in the journal title. The journal title and volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in parentheses (not italicised).
  • NEW: Capitalise the word “Article” before the article number or eLocator.
  • NEW: The article number takes the place of page numbers.

Journal article - in press

In text citation

(Davis & Bellocchi, in press)

or

Davis and Bellocchi (in press) state that ...

In reference list

Davis, J. P. & Bellocchi, A. (in press). Intensity of emotional energy in situated cultural practices of science education. Cultural Studies of Science Education.

  • Journal titles use title case (i.e. a capital letter is used for key words).
  • Ideally, use and cite the final, published version of a work.
  • Do not add a date. When information is missing, omit it.

Journal article, published in another language

In text citation

(Moskvin, 2017)

or

Moskvin (2017)

In reference list

Moskvin, V. (2017). О приемах возвышения стиля в русском языке [On stylistic devices as style elevators in the Russian language]. Russian Linguistics, 41(3), 283-315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11185-017-9182-4

  • When an article is in a different language than your paper, include a translation of the article title in square brackets.
  • Journal titles use title case (i.e. a capital letter is used for key words). The journal title and volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in parentheses (not italicised).