Breadcrumbs

Others (Course Handouts, Software, Email etc.)

Mobile App / Software

In text citation

According to Entertainment New Zealand App (Entertainment Publications of Australia Pty, 2019), contemporary restaurants are …

In reference list

Entertainment Publications of Australia Pty. (2019, November 14). Entertainment New Zealand (Version 8.2.0)  [Mobile app]. App Store. https://apps.apple.com/nz/app/entertainment-new-zealand/id842389985

  • NEW: Italicise the title of the app.
  • NEW: Provide the most specific date possible (e.g. 2020, May 2). Use no date (n.d.) if no date of publication is given.
  • Use this format if you have used information from within the app.
  • Common mobile apps and software mentioned in text, but not paraphrased or quoted, do not need citations (e.g. Microsoft Excel, Facebook, SPSS). However, include reference list entries and in-text citations if you have paraphrased or quoted. If apps or software you have cited are not well known, provide the reference entry.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Manuscripts

In text citation

(Te Turuki, 1864)

In reference list

Te Turuki, T. A. (1864). Notebook na Te Kooti (Reference number: MSX-3091) [Unpublished manuscript]. Alexander Turnbull Library.

Course handout (PowerPoint slides)

In text citation

(Archard, Merry, & Nicholson, 2011)

or

Archard, Merry, and Nicholson (2011) state that

In reference list

Archard, S., Merry, R., & Nicholson, C. (2011). Karakia and waiata [PowerPoint slides]. Moodle. http://elearn.waikato.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?id=174650

  • NEW: If the slides come from Moodle (The University of Waikato learning management system) and you are writing for an audience with access to that resource (e.g. an online discussion forum in Moodle, a course assignment), provide the name of the site (i.e. Moodle) and a direct URL to the source.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Data Sets

In text citation

(Morningstar, 2019)

In reference list

Morningstar. (2019). Contact Energy: Corporate details [Data file]. DatAnalysis Premium. https://datanalysis-morningstar-com

  • NEW: Include the name of the database before the URL.
  • A data set is where you have selected raw data to produce a unique data set (APA Publication Manual 7th edition, p. 337).
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Data file - from a website

In text citation

(Statistics New Zealand, n.d.).

In reference list

Stats NZ. (n.d.). Birthplace and sex, for the Maori ethnic group census usually resident population count, 2001 [Data file, 2001 Population Census].  https://www.stats.govt.nz/

  • A data set is where you have selected raw data to produce a unique data set (APA Publication Manual 7th edition, p. 337).
  • The use of [Data file] indicates that you have chosen specific data to form this data set.  You can also include additional information to distinguish data sets, e.g. [Data file, 2001 Population Census].
  • NEW: Include the name of the website before the URL. When the author and the website name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.
  • Use no date (n.d.) if no date of publication is given.
  • If a title is given for the data set, put it in italics.
  • If there is no title, provide a description in square brackets of the publication status and focus of data. Do not italicise this description.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Personal communications (emails, your own lecture notes etc.)

In text citation

(H. Clarke, personal communication, March 19, 2004)

or

H. Clarke (personal communication, March 19, 2004) remarked that...

In reference list

  • No information is required in the reference list as the data has not been published and can not be retrieved.
  • Contents from private or friend-only social networking webpages should be treated as Personal Communications, but information in a publicly available social networking website must be referenced. See examples in 'Webpages & Social Networking' section.

Images (Photographs, Infographic, Map, Clip art)

In text citation

In Figure 2, one would find … (Mikel, 2012).

or

Grumpy Cat photo in Figure 1 shows … (Grumpy Cat, 2019).

See Figures (including Images) & Tables if the photograph is cited as a figure.

In reference list

Mikel. (2012). Valle de la luna - La Paz, Bolivia [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/mikelpierre/7180897776/

Grumpy Cat [@realgrumpycat]. (2019, December 12). [Photograph of Grumpy Cat 2020 Year-In-A-Box calendar]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B5-yo4hB_Ci/

  • NEW: Present the name of the individual or group author the same as you would for any other reference. Then provide the social media handle in square brackets.
  • NEW: For an untitled photograph, include a description in square brackets in place of title.
  • Use the URL to lead to the post rather than the feed.
  • See Figures (including Images) & Tables if the photograph is cited as a figure.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.