Breadcrumbs

Webpages & Social Networking

Blog post

In text citation

(Mecham, 2019)

In reference list

Meecham, S. (2019, November 16). How to find a book when you don't know the title or author. Book Cave. https://mybookcave.com/how-to-find-a-book-when-you-dont-know-the-title-or-author/

  • NEW: List and italicise the blog site name after the blog entry title.

Twitter post (tweet)

The same format used for Twitter is also used for similar social networking apps such as Instagram and Weibo.

In text citation

It is reported that ... (Ono, 2013).
Swift (2019) commented ...

In reference list

Ono, Y. [@yokoono]. (2013, June 17). Sue Webster, PJ Harvey, Hanna Hanra & Linda Yablonsky hold the #meltdownfest programme on the opening night [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/yokoono/status/346643053563486209

Swift, T. [@taylorswift13]. (2019, November 7). Earring said SMILE but I stay smirking. 😏[Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/taylorswift13/status/1192427495330648065

  • NEW: Provide the first 20 words of the tweet as the title.
  • NEW: Present the name of the individual or group author the same as you would for any other reference. Then provide the Twitter handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets.
  • Use the URL to lead to the post rather than the feed.
  • NEW: Indicate in square brackets if the tweet includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, links to other tweets, or a poll.
  • NEW: Replicate emojis if possible. If you are not able to create the emoji, provide the emoji name in square brackets e.g. “[smirking face emoji]” for 😏
  • Contents from private or friend-only Twitter pages should be treated as Personal Communications. See 'Personal Communications' in 'Others' Section.
  • NEW: List the website or app name before the URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Online forum post

In text citation

(WindWatcherX, 2019)

In reference list

WindWatcherX. (2019, October 10). Should SpaceX hold off Mars missions for "planetary protection"? [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/spacex/comments/dfk3cj/should_spacex_hold_off_mars_missions_for/

  • NEW: Provide the first 20 words of the forum post as the title.
  • NEW: List the website or app name before the URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Facebook post

This format can be used for posts to other social media services eg.Tumblr, LinkedIn, and so forth.

In text citation

(Clark, 2013)

In reference list

Clark, H. (2013, April 7). I've just been at the spring meeting of the UN Chief Executives Board [Image included]. Facebook. http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10151631106326579set=a.10150973739971579.488293.9740721578&type=1

  • NEW: Provide the first 20 words of the Facebook post as the title.
  • Use the URL to lead to the post rather than the feed.
  • NEW: Indicate in square brackets if the post includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources,or content from another Facebook post.
  • NEW: Replicate emojis if possible.
  • Contents from a private or friend-only Facebook page should be treated as Personal Communications. See 'Personal Communications' in 'Others' Section.
  • NEW: List the website or app name before the URL.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Facebook webpage

This format can be used or adapted for references to other platform or profile pages, including YouTube, Instagram, Tumblr, LinkedIn, and so forth.

In text citation

(United Nations, n.d.)

In reference list

United Nations. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/unitednations/

  • Use no date (n.d.) if no date of publication is given.
  • Use the page title in the reference eg. Timeline, Home, Photos, About
  • Include the name of the platform in square brackets.
  • NEW: List the website or app name before the retrieval statement and URL.
  • If you feel your webpage is likely to change or be updated, include an access date eg Retrieved January 14, 2020, from URL
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.

Web pages

In text citation

(Stats NZ, 2019)
(Parker, n.d.)

  • Do not write URLs in the text.

In reference list

Stats NZ. (2019, November 19). Log prices chopped. https://www.stats.govt.nz/news/log-prices-chopped

Parker, C. K. (n.d.). How to cook quinoa. EatingWell. http://www.eatingwell.com/article/75424/how-to-cook-quinoa/

  • Use no date (n.d.) if no date of publication is given.
  • NEW: Provide the most specific date possible (e.g. 2020, May 2). Use no date (n.d.) if no date of publication is given.
  • NEW: Include the name of the website before the URL. When the author and the website name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.
  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL. If the webpage is likely to change or be updated, include an access date e.g. Retrieved January 14, 2020, from URL

Wikipedia entry

In text citation

(“Taika Waititi,” 2020)

or

"Taika Waititi" (2016) outlines …

In reference list

Taika Waititi. (2020, January 14). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taika_Waititi&oldid=935796627

  • NEW: Retrieved from is no longer required before the URL.