Harvard Science: Examples


1. Whole book:

Author/s (surname then initials, commas between multiple authors, use & between two authors) Year, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

1a. Authored book:

Coates, G. 2002, The rise and fall of the Southern Alps, Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, N.Z.

Basher, L. R., Lynn, I. H. & Whitehouse, I. E. 1995, Geomorphology of the Wairau Plains: implications for floodplain management planning, Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, N.Z.

Note: If there are more than three authors, include all of the authors in the reference at the end of your assignment.

1b. Edited book:

Soons, J. M. & Selby, M. J. (eds) 1992, Landforms of New Zealand, Longman Paul, Auckland , N.Z.

2. An article or chapter in an edited book

Author of article/chapter Year, 'Title of article/chapter', in Names of editor/s (ed/s), Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication, pagination.

Jeanne, R. L. 1991, 'Polyethism', in K. G. Ross & R. W. Matthews (eds), The social biology of wasps, Cornell University Press, New York, pp.389- 425.

Keller, L. & Reeve, H. K. 1999, 'Dynamics of conflicts within insect societies', in L. Keller (ed.), Levels of selection in evolution, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, pp.153-175.

Journal articles:

Author/s Year, 'Article title', Journal title, vol. number and issue number, pagination.

Basher, L. R., Ross, C. W. & Dando, J. 2004, 'Effects of carrot growing on volcanic ash soils in the Ohakune area, New Zealand', Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 42, no. 3, pp.259-272.

Henshaw, M. J., Strassmann, J. E., Quach, S. Q. & Queller, D. C. 2000, 'Male production in Parachartergus colobopterus, a neotropical, swarm-founding wasp', Ethology, Ecology and Evolution, vol. 12, pp.161-174.

Conference papers:

Example of a conference paper from published proceedings:

Trump, A. 1986, 'Power play', Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference, International Society of Power Engineers, Houston Texas, pp. 40-51.

Example of a paper presented at a conference/meeting (unpublished):

Lanktree, C. & Briere, J. January 1991, Early data on trauma symptom checklists for children, Paper presented at the meeting of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, San Diego.

Note: In the above example, the title is not italicised as this has not been published.


Author/s or corporate author Year of publication/latest update, Title of webpage, Date of viewing, Webpage address/URL.

Website Example should read as follows with no caps in the title:

Snowdon, C. T. 1997, Significance of animal behaviour research, viewed 20 February 2004,

Websites with no author:

Mariner 2002: Undergraduate student information, 2002, viewed 3 April 2002,

Websites with no date:

If a year of publication does not appear on the web page, use n.d. in place of the year.

Central South Island glacial geomorphology, n.d., viewed 22 September 2015,


Author Year, Title, Type of thesis, University.

Note: Theses are unpublished works, and therefore the title is not italicised.

Matheson, S. G. 1981, The volcanic geology of the Mt Karioi region, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Waikato.

Freedberg, S. 2003, Natal homing in a freshwater turtle demonstrated through mitochondrial sequencing and mark-recapture data, PhD. Thesis, Indiana University.


Author(s) of report Year of publication, Title of report, Report series code and number, Sponsoring body or body issuing report series, Publisher (if different from sponsoring body), City.

Kogan, P., Moses, I. & El-Khawas, E. H. 1994, Staffing higher education: meeting new challenges: report of the IMHE project on policies for academic staffing in higher education, Higher education policy series, no. 27, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London.

May, T. W. & Avram, J. 1997, The conservation status and distribution of macrofungi in Victoria. A report prepared for the Australian Heritage Commission, Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne.


Pamphlets often have no specific author.

Example of a pamphlet where the author is also the publisher:

Wellington Regional Council [1995], Facing the future: a ten year plan for the Wellington Regional Council, Author, [Wellington , N.Z.].

In the above example, the pamphlet is produced and published by the Wellington Regional Council, hence the word "Author" in the publisher field of the reference. The square brackets around the date and place of publication indicate that these are assumed (from information appearing in the pamphlet).

When there is no date of publication (and no indication of it within the pamphlet), the reference will appear as follows:

Wellington Regional Council n.d., Facing the future: a ten year plan for the Wellington Regional Council , Author, [Wellington , N.Z.].

The n.d. stands for "no date".

Parliamentary acts or legislation:

Government acts are produced and published by the government, thus the author and publisher are the same.


New Zealand Government 1991, Resource Management Act, Author, Wellington, N.Z.

The in-text citation would appear as follows:

Waste materials may be dumped only if resource consent has been obtained (New Zealand Government 1991, s. 15, ss.15A).


If the name of the originator (cartographer, compiler, editor, maker etc.) is known, the following elements are included in a reference for a map:

Originator's name Year, Title of map, Scale of map, Publisher, Place of publication.


Mason, J. 1832, Map of the countries lying between Spain and India, 1:8,000,000, Ordnance Survey, London.

Land Information New Zealand 1988, North Cape, 1:50,000, Land Information New Zealand, Wellington.

If the name of the originator is not known, the following elements are included in a reference for a map:

Title of map Year, Scale of map, Publisher, Place of publication.

Course notes:

Course notes/handouts are unpublished works, and therefore the title is not italicised.

Author/lecturer Year, Title [Course notes], Course code Paper title, Department, University, City.

Scooby, B. 2001, Discovering our planet [Course notes], ERTH105 World we live in, Department of Earth Science, University of Waikato, Hamilton, N.Z.

References used for this guide

Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, John Wiley, Milton, Qld.

Located in Hamilton Campus Library (Level 3 Books) at Call Number Z253.S8 2002.