Just how prepared is Aotearoa’s highly valuable tourism sector for the coming impacts of climate change? Research recently concluded in the Deep South Challenge: Changing with our Climate suggests that the answer is similar to most sectors of New Zealand society: not nearly prepared enough.
And yet, some aspects of tourism – its emphasis on place and stories of place, its connection to values such as manaakitanga, whānautanga and kaitiakitanga – provide tourism operators with a ready-made planning guide, as they consider how to climate-proof their operations.
The research team, led by Professors Priya Kurian and Debashish Munshi (University of Waikato), present their findings in a new research report, Centring Culture in Public Engagement on Climate Adaptation: Re-shaping the Future of the NZ Tourism Sector.
In many ways, tourism presents us with a microcosm of the intersecting challenges all sectors face in relation to climate adaptation. Like other sectors, tourism is made up of multiple small-to-medium-size enterprises, many of whom don’t feel they have the resources to invest in long-term planning, or the ability to influence local or central government investment decisions around infrastructure and the natural environment.
The lack of a national adaptation framework and funding, an uncertain regulatory environment and the pressures of day-to-day operations mean that climate adaptation is low on the list of priorities for many tourism businesses. Nevertheless, recent local and global events reiterate yet again how vulnerable the tourism sector is and will increasingly be to the impacts of climate change.
“The tourism sector,” says Debashish Munshi, “is becoming increasingly aware of sustainability issues, and is actively working towards achieving sustainability goals but, as the report points out, the sector faces huge constraints in actively preparing to adapt to climate change.”
Still, tourism can take the lead in showing others how to adapt to our changing climate – including by planning from and leading with culture. Tourism, by its very nature, rests on the four ‘pillars’ of culture identified in this research: place, values, power and narrative. Tourism operators already understand the imperative to operate sustainably, and are very often champions for their local environments. By integrating climate information into the stories they tell about their place; by making sure these stories and any development plans are aligned with core values of care for people and nature; and by understanding how they can exercise power in shaping sustainable tourism, operators can future-proof their businesses from the emerging impacts of climate change.
The report makes a series of recommendations for tourism operators and sector bodies, as well as for local and central government. The report finds that there is a critical need to increase operators’ awareness of relevant climate information, including about changing temperatures, extreme weather, floods and droughts, and the impact these are having on marine, coastal, river and alpine environments.
Operators need better information about local impacts on flora and fauna, pest and disease profiles, and the relationship of climate impacts to air travel (for example, about the future reluctance or inability of tourists to travel to New Zealand).